During the course of infection, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) maintains a stably integrated reservoir of replication-competent proviruses within the host genome that are unaffected by antiretroviral therapy. Curative advancements rely heavily on targeting the reservoir, though determinants of its evolutionary origins remain ill-supported through current strategies and are often limited by sample variety. Here, we describe a single-cell deoxyribonucleic acid sequencing (scDNA-seq) method, optimized for sequencing of proviral and host DNA from a treatment-interrupted HIV animal model. We report its benefits for improving viral reservoir resolution to support critical evolutionary events otherwise considered unreliable using traditional viral envelope gene signal alone, as well as comparative advantages to existing near-full-length genome sequencing methods. Given the variety of proviral characteristics that may influence viral rebound, scDNA-seq holds immense value in its ability to streamline many of the present-day applications available in viral reservoir studies, such as integration status and putative replication competency.
Droske LE, Shank SD, Cash MN, Pond SL, Salemi M, Magalis BR