Complete or partial deletions of chromosome 7 (-7/del7q) belong to the most frequent chromosomal abnormalities in myeloid neoplasm (MN) and are associated with a poor prognosis. The disease biology of -7/del7q and the genes responsible for the leukemogenic properties have not been completely elucidated. Chromosomal deletions may create clonal vulnerabilities due to haploinsufficient (HI) genes contained in the deleted regions. Therefore, HI genes are potential targets of synthetic lethal strategies. Through the most comprehensive multimodal analysis of more than 600 -7/del7q MN samples, we elucidated the disease biology and qualified a list of most consistently deleted and HI genes. Among them, 27 potentially synthetic lethal target genes were identified with the following properties: (i) unaffected genes by hemizygous/homozygous LOF mutations; (ii) prenatal lethality in knockout mice; and (iii) vulnerability of leukemia cells by CRISPR and shRNA knockout screens. In -7/del7q cells, we also identified 26 up or down-regulated genes mapping on other chromosomes as downstream pathways or compensation mechanisms. Our findings shed light on the pathogenesis of -7/del7q MNs, while 27 potential synthetic lethal target genes and 26 differential expressed genes allow for a therapeutic window of -7/del7q.