Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are caused by a somatic gain-of-function mutation in 1 of the 3 disease driver genes JAK2, MPL, or CALR. About half of the MPNs patients also carry additional somatic mutations that modify the clinical course. The order of acquisition of these gene mutations has been proposed to influence the phenotype and evolution of the disease. We studied 50 JAK2-V617F-positive MPN patients who carried at least 1 additional somatic mutation and determined the clonal architecture of their hematopoiesis by sequencing DNA from single-cell-derived colonies. In 22 of these patients, the same blood samples were also studied for comparison by Tapestri single-cell DNA sequencing (scDNAseq). The clonal architectures derived by the 2 methods showed good overall concordance. scDNAseq showed higher sensitivity for mutations with low variant allele fraction, but had more difficulties distinguishing between heterozygous and homozygous mutations. By unsupervised analysis of clonal architecture data from all 50 MPN patients, we defined 4 distinct clusters. Cluster 4, characterized by more complex subclonal structure correlated with reduced overall survival, independent of the MPN subtype, presence of high molecular risk mutations, or the age at diagnosis. Cluster 1 was characterized by additional mutations residing in clones separated from the JAK2-V617F clone. The correlation with overall survival improved when mutation in such separated clones were not counted. Our results show that scDNAseq can reliably decipher the clonal architecture and can be used to refine the molecular prognostic stratification that until now was primarily based on the clinical and laboratory parameters.