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Single cell proteogenomic sequencing identifies a relapse-fated AML subclone carrying FLT3-ITD with CN-LOH at chr13q

TaeHyung Kim et al.
British Society for Hematology

Internal tandem duplication of the Feline McDonough Sarcoma (FMS)-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3-ITD) is one of the most clinically relevant mutations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), with a high FLT3-ITD allelic ratio (AR) (≥0.5) being strongly associated with poor prognosis. FLT3-ITDs are heterogeneous, varying in size and location, with some patients having multiple FLT3-ITDs. Bulk cell-based approaches are limited in their ability to reveal the clonal structure in such cases. Using single-cell proteogenomic sequencing (ScPGseq), we attempted to identify a relapse-fated subclone in an AML case with mutations in WT1NPM1, and FLT3 tyrosine kinase domain and two FLT3-ITDs (21 bp and 39 bp) (low AR) at presentation, then relapsed only with WT1 and NPM1 mutations and one FLT3-ITD (high AR). This relapse-fated subclone at presentation (∼2.1% of sequenced cells) was characterized by the presence of a homozygous 21 bp FLT3-ITD resulting from copy neutral loss of heterozygosity (CN-LOH) of chr13q and an aberrant, immature myeloid cell surface signature, contrast to the cell surface phenotype at presentation. In contrast to results from multicolor flow-cytometry, ScPGseq not only enabled the early detection of rare relapse-fated subclone showing immature myeloid signature but also highlighted the presence of homozygous 21 bp FLT3-ITDs in the clone at presentation.


TaeHyung Kim


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